STANDARDIZATION, SPECIALIZATION AND FORMATIZATION AS THE FACTORS OF RETAIL TRADE COMPETITIVENESS
Keywords:retail trade, standardization, specialization, formatization, strategic forces, factors of retail trade competitiveness, institutional system, formal and informal institutions
The article investigates theoretical and methodological issues of retail trade modernization within new structural models. There is a distinct need to substantiate strategic tasks of internal trade and declare corresponding strategic priorities regarding the specialization and standardization of retail trade enterprises taking into account current social processes. The author displays her interpretation of the term ‘‘retail trade network’’ as well as lists generalization criteria for trade networks. In fact, retail trade networks have to be formatized in order to enhance competitiveness and effectiveness of networks by means of new organizational forms, resource concentration, centralization of functions and management. In the paper, formatization is explained as a complex, durable and definitely necessary process. It is emphasized that various trade firms could unite and establish monoformat and multiformat networks. The article describes principal strategic forces that have an impact on retail trade and assist in expanding and upgrading the processes of specialization and standardization in the retail. It discovers the influence of main strategic forces on various aspects in retail trade development, incl. standardization and specialization. The evolvement of retail trade has various directions which could determine their main strategic priorities. The author presents a few examples of internalization of foreign trade networks as well as their modification and adaptation capacities in terms of changing conditions. As a result, in many countries networks formats differ from standards, yet possess their own identity. The paper offers a potential structure of institutional system for the development of specialization and standardization as the factors of retail trade competitiveness. It consists of formal and informal institutions that contain law and normative, organizational and economic, social and psychological elements which influence the scale, dynamics as well as nature of specialization and standardization of retail trade enterprises.
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