BUDGETARY AND HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES AS A FACTOR OF EDUCATION AVAILABILITY FOR UKRAINIAN POPULATION
Abstract. This article contains a results of testing the analytical techniques, designed to assess the contribution of budgetary sectors of the social industries to the dynamics of household well-being.
Whereas the real consumption of free-to-use goods may be measured only conditional (by the amount of resources spent on creating such goods), we estimated the contribution of the budgetary education sector to the well-being of Ukrainian households through the dynamics of demand for goods, provided by commercial sector of education. We assume from the hypothesis about interchangeability of the goods, which received by households through the budgetary and commercial sectors of education. For empirically testing of this hypothesis, the article examines the functional relationship between the rate of extension of the budgetary education sector resource provision (as a factor) and the demand of households for the goods, supplied by the commercial sector of this industry (as a dependent value).
For investigating such a functional dependence, the article evaluates the parameters of the function, where the dependent variable is the basic growth rate of real consumption of goods, which is provided to Ukrainian households by the commercial sector of education. Factor variables are the basic growth rates of real resources of the commercial and budgetary sectors of the Ukrainian educational industry. According to the logic of setting, this model is similar to the Working model, but does not provide a logarithmic form of the representation of the factor variables. The latter is predetermined by that fact, that both explanatory and dependent variables are expressed as growth rates, which significantly increases the likelihood of the hypothesis about linear nature of the connection between variables and the stability in time of absolute increments of the dependent variable value.
The Working model was actively used to explain the dependence of changes in the pattern of household’s consumption on household income, before it was developed by Taylor, who incorporated in that model a term to reflect the impact of relative prices. We turned to the primary form of the Working model because we have add to it a factor, whose nature of connection with dependence variable is similar wit impact made by total household incomes.
The simulation results have not empirically confirmed the inverse relationship between the expansion of the resource provision of the budgetary education sector and the growth rate of consumption of goods supplied by the commercial sector of the industry. At the same time, there are signs that during the retrospective period, the expansion of the budgetary education sector’s resource provision was accompanied by an increase in pressure on the commercial sector’s resource potential: there is a crowding out effect known in the macroeconomics of public and private investment.
We have not received empirical evidence of the ability of budget expenditures to replace consumption of goods, provided by the commercial education sector in Ukraine. Both sectors of education are forced to operate in a mode of resources scarcity and adverse dynamics of resource provision, which threatens to erode the quality of educational services and undermines the fundamental foundations of commercial education financing: the connection «investments to education — income growth».
The social performances of both the budgetary and commercial education sectors are clearly deteriorating due to the chronically negative tendencies in resource provision. Increasing the rigidity of education financing conditions, both at the expense of household incomes and at the expense of the budget, limits the choice of consumers so much that it is more correct to interpret our results as forms of adaptation to the negative dynamics of well-being, rather than as a manifestation of rational consumer choice. In this context that we interpret the lack of indications of households’ attitude to the goods, supplied by the commercial education sector, as to the goods of luxury: during the retrospective period, the share of education expenditures in household income declines. It is an expression of extremely low economic opportunities, not of consumer preferences of Ukrainian households, who are forced to spend about half of their individual consumer spending on meeting primary needs (food and utilities).
Keywords: social sectors, education, budget expenditures, goods availability, commercial sector, budget sector, consumption.
JEL Classification D12, H52, I31
Formulas: 2; fig.: 1; tabl.: 3; bibl.: 20.
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Copyright (c) 2021 Д. Верба, I. Верховод, С. Ізбаш, O. Бунчук, O. Самборський
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